What is the medical model of abnormal behavior? What are its criticisms? What is the assertion of Thomas Szasz? Distinguish between diagnosis, etiology, and prognosis.

Chapter 15
1. What is the medical model of abnormal behavior? What are its criticisms? What is the assertion of Thomas Szasz? Distinguish between diagnosis, etiology, and prognosis.
2. Describe the criteria clinicians use when making a diagnosis of mental illness.
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3. What are the DSM-IV and DSM-5? (Note: Students will not need to know the axial system of the DSM-IV, since it has been eliminated in DSM-5). What is comorbidity? Distinguish between the categorical and dimensional approaches to diagnosis.
4. Distinguish between epidemiology and prevalence. What is the lifetime risk for psychiatric disorder in the U.S.?
5. What are anxiety disorders? What is generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)? What is a phobic disorder? Define panic disorder and agoraphobia, and describe how these two disorders are linked. What is obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? What is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and what kinds of events may lead to this illness?
6. What is concordance rate? Summarize the link between anxiety disorders and (a) biological factors and (b) classical and operant conditioning. What is Seligman’s preparedness theory for the development of phobias? What are the cognitive factors associated with phobias? Can stress be related to the cause of phobias?
7. What are dissociative disorders? Distinguish between dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue. What is dissociative identity disorder (DID)? What accounts for the increase in the number of diagnosed cases of DID? Summarize the causes of DID.
8. What are mood disorders? What is major depressive disorder? What is anhedonia? What are symptoms of depression? How long do depressive episodes typically last? What is the prevalence of depression in women versus men? What are possible reasons for the causes of depression in women?
9. What is bipolar disorder? What is a “manic” episode? Are there gender differences seen with bipolar disorder?
10. What are the gender differences seen in attempted suicide versus completed suicide? Summarize the six suicide prevention tips.
11. Summarize the genetic vulnerability for mood disorders. Describe some of the neurochemical and neuroanatomical factors that contribute to mood disorders. Which hormonal factors seem to contribute to depression?
12. What is learned helplessness? What is a pessimistic explanatory style? What is rumination, and what is its relationship to depression? Do studies suggest there is a causative link between negative thinking and depression? Can mood disorders be precipitated by stress?
13. What are schizophrenic disorders? Define the following schizophrenic symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, and blunted or flat affect.
14. Summarize the different types of schizophrenia. Distinguish between positive and negative symptoms. Summarize the course and outcome for those with schizophrenia.
15. Summarize the genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia, including identical vs. fraternal twin concordance rates. What is the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia? Summarize the neuroanatomical features associated with schizophrenia.
16. What is the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia? What is “expressed emotion”? Describe the link between expressed emotion and schizophrenia. Finally, what is the link between stress and schizophrenia?
17. What are personality disorders? What are the estimated prevalence rates for personality disorders? Summarize the diagnostic problems associated with the personality disorders.
18. What is antisocial personality disorder? What is the etiology of antisocial personality disorder?
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19. What is insanity? What is the M’naghten rule? How often is the insanity defense used, and how successful is it?
20. What is involuntary commitment?
21. Are equivalent mental disorders found around the world? What is meant by “culture-bound disorders”? Do symptoms patterns of mental illness vary between cultures?
22. Summarize the stress-vulnerability model for schizophrenia.
23. What are eating disorders? Define anorexia nervosa. Distinguish between the subtypes “restricting type” and “binge-eating/purging type”. Define bulimia nervosa. What is binge-eating disorder?
24. Summarize the history and prevalence of eating disorders.
25. Summarize how the following influence eating disorders: (a) genetic vulnerability, (b) personality factors, (c) cultural values, (d) role of family members, and (e) cognitive factors.
26. Summarize how mental heuristics can distort estimates associated with mental illness. Distinguish between representativeness heuristic and availability heuristic.

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