U.S. government II (Memorandum)

The policy making process involves looking at an issue on the political agenda and deciding what to do about it. The agenda is

constantly expanding due to many factors like media attention, politicians looking for votes, crisis, and interest group activity.

Often the process involves political struggles.


Select a public policy issue that interests you. It can be any topic on the political agenda.

For ideas on public policy issues, visit Almanac of Policy Issues and search by issue area. The site offers background information

on issues, archived documents, and links on major U.S. public policy issues: http://www.policyalmanac.org/

Using the following Memorandum format, write a public policy official of your choosing about the issue you select. Your memorandum

outlines talking points for an upcoming interview between the official and a Washington Post reporter.


To: A Public Policy Official
From: John Doe
Date: September 9, 2013
Subject: The subject line should not exceed two lines.

NOTE: A memorandum to a Public Policy Official is one page. You are preparing a Briefing Memorandum outlining talking points for an

upcoming interview between the Public Policy Official and a Washington Post reporter about an important and fast-evolving public policy



The issue statement sets out what happened, is happening, or will happen to trigger the briefing memo. It should not exceed two or

three lines. An issue statement elaborates on the subject line and outlines the specific trigger for the event, or decision. A

“trigger” is more descriptive than “issue” for this paragraph. In defining the issue, determine how much is already known about the


Start with an Issue Statement, NOT a Purpose Statement.
Example: Purpose Statement – You have already stated the purpose of the memo in your subject line. Issue Statement- This conveys a

sense of urgency –the reason you are writing the briefing memo.


The body of a briefing memo contains:

Background Section
Considerations Section

One approach to writing the body is to write the opening and closing paragraphs. Then ask yourself, “What will it take for readers to

see that the closing paragraph is a sensible response to the opening paragraph?” The answer forms the body of your briefing memo.


Background provides explanatory material to bring the Public Policy Official up to speed on what is happening or what has happened.

This is where you provide information that will help the official understand the issue and its context.


Considerations provide information and arguments to justify your conclusion and/or recommendation. The considerations section provides

findings, analyses, pros and cons, options, and arguments that lead the reader to the recommendation or an advisable response to the

issue statement at the beginning of the memo.


Memos should close with either a recommendation or a conclusion. Recommendations should be brief. Do not present or repeat your

rationale in the recommendations section. State specifically what the official is being asked to do or decide, as opposed to stating a

desirable outcome. Ask yourself: “If I read this recommendation, would I know what I am being asked to do?”


A memo for information should end with a conclusion. It should:

Clarify the issue or event; (Help the official see the forest through the trees).
Interpret the significance of the information.
Analyze the information in the memo, not just describe the situation.
Answer what happens next, or where you are in confronting the problem or process presented.
Never include “We will keep you informed,” “We are monitoring the situation,” or “We will brief you on any significant

developments.” These are understood and expected.


This is the format I use for my interns on Capitol Hill, and it is essentially the format I used when I represented the Canadian

Embassy as a foreign agent. The Briefing Memo was the basis for every briefing/talking point memo I ever did for United States Career

Ambassador, Elbridge Durbrow.


You will explore an issue and experience the public policy process of explaining the issue and achieving a desired outcome.


Your memorandum is worth 60 points toward your final grade in the course. Refer to the following table to understand how this

assignment will be graded:

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