Multinational Enterprises

Multinational Enterprises

Students will be assessed by a single piece of submitted work.
Multinational Enterprises Assessment
The assessment is a submission, not exceeding 3750 words, which addresses the following brief:
a. Set out a clear summary of key changes relating to global foreign direct investment and international production in 2012 over the previous year. You should include an accurate description of salient trends in the data (Word-guidance 750).
b. Critically evaluate the following three explanations for the growth of multinational enterprises: the internalization theory, Vernon’s international product-cycle model and Cowling and Sugden oligopolistic rivals approach (Word-guidance 1750).
c. Assess the impact of one transnational corporation on the UK using one of the following criteria: innovation or labour or trade or political sovereignty (Word-guidance 1000).

In addition to the 3750 word extended essay, the submission should include a 250 word Reflection on the assessment. It should include a discussion of:
I. What you learnt from the assessment?
II. What you found most interesting?
III. What you found most challenging?
IV. How effectively did it assess the learning outcomes of the module?

The most important guidance that can be given is: answer the question(s) posed (not the question you would have liked to answer). The most common cause of poor marks is that work submitted fails to address the question(s). Focus like a laser on the question and these problems are avoidable.

Remember the assessment is designed to test your knowledge of the module’s content and your ability to critically evaluate materials. Put bluntly, if you demonstrate a reasonable degree of comprehension of the module’s content you increase considerably your chances of passing. In answering section a, you are encouraged to engage with UNCTAD’s 2013 World Investment Report. For section b, the essential reading covers selected chapters from letto-Gillies. In addressing section c, you might begin by consulting letto-Gillies, Dicken and Shaxson. However, seeking out other relevant references will be rewarded.

Do not exceed the overall word-limit of 3750 words; this is a “hard” limit. The sectional word-guidance figures (for sections a, b and c) are softer, more flexible numbers, that offer a “steer” to the balance of your submitted work. If you include tables, make sure that each one has a complete title and is correctly cited using the Harvard referencing method. Remember endnotes do NOT count towards the word limit. So in the final editing process you must decide if materials included in the main body of the work can instead feature in endnotes. If you don’t know what an endnote is…ASK!!!

Make sure you include citations for the arguments you include in your essay. Moreover, you must include a complete bibliography at the end of the essay, which includes the full references for the works cited. References in the bibliography must be set-out using the Harvard system.


The guidelines for the submission of the essay assignment are as follows.

? Submit an electronic version of your work via X-stream.
? The submitted work should be word processed. It should not exceed 3750 words in length. It should include a Reflection not exceeding 250 words.
? The submitted work should be properly referenced throughout. It should include a bibliography, and where appropriate endnotes.
? Please ensure the submitted work has no appendices.
? Ensure the submitted work includes a word count on the first page – this figure does not include tables, endnotes or the bibliography;
? The submitted work should be produced with a typeface of Arial font size 14. Please use the same typeface throughout.
? The submitted work should be set out double-spaced (including bibliography and endnotes).
? All text should be ranged left and unjustified.
? The submitted work should include the following statement of authenticity.

“I confirm that this submission is my own work. Any quotations are properly cited using the Harvard referencing method. All errors and omissions are my responsibility alone.”


? The order of the submitted work should be as follows:

• Your name (forename and then surname)
• Assessment brief in full
• The name of your Module tutor
• Statement of Authenticity (make sure you sign and date the statement)
• Word Count Figure
• Main body of submitted work
• Endnotes
• Bibliography

The failure to fulfil one or more of these requirements will mean that marks will be deducted at the discretion of the Module tutors.
Any submitted work handed in late will be subject to the University penalties for the late submission of work.
• Has the assessment brief been fully addressed?
• Does the submitted work fully engage with the essential reading and key data sources?
• Have the most appropriate materials from the key sources been selected and synthesised into a cohesive whole?
• Have the arguments of the authors been fairly summarised; are key concepts/ frameworks properly applied?
• What ability has been demonstrated to critical evaluate divergent perspectives and key data sources.
• How well is the submitted work written? Are professional written communication skills evident? Whenever possible do students use their own words to explain ideas?
• Does the submitted work include an effective introduction and conclusion?
• Does the submitted work have a logical, balanced structure?
• Is there any irrelevant material included? What evidence is there of editing and re-drafting?
• Are appropriate endnotes included, and have arguments in the body of the submitted work been properly cited using the Harvard Method?
• Are the references in the bibliography set out correctly using the Harvard Method? Are the bibliographical references mentioned evident in the main body of the submitted work and endnotes?

There are 6 important stages to writing a good academic submission. They are:-

• examine the question;
• find and organise relevant material;
• make an structure plan;
• product an initial draft;
• edit and amend initial draft;
• complete the final draft within the word limit specified.

The last two stages however (i.e. editing and amending and writing the piece) may involve a great deal of trial and error and changes, but this is necessary in order to gain the best mark possible. Of great importance, at these two last stages, is to ensure that all citations and bibliographical references are correct.

Examining the Question

The essay title/assessment brief should be interpreted as literally as possible. Start by breaking the question down phrase by phrase, word by word. Look for the key words and concepts in the question, especially what the question is asking you to do (e.g. define, outline, collect, explain, evaluate, discuss etc).

Finding and Organising Your Material

You should follow up on recommended reading from the seminar topics. This will give you the essential reading you require. Good students will find additional sources. The Library has over 500,000 books so you should use it to provide additional texts where required. You will need to read and make notes from the relevant texts. Try not to take notes verbatim; summarise using your own words. If you want to quote key pieces of text make sure you reference a quotation clearly. DO NOT PLAGIARISE i.e. do not use another author’s words without acknowledgement.

Planning Your Work

With your notes complete you need to select those parts which are most relevant to the question/brief. Go back and read the question again. Try to find a LOGICAL structure for answering the question. Make sure that key concepts are defined. Decide your main points and put them in logical order. Put alongside this all the supporting points, examples, data and illustrations.
Editing and Amending the Initial Draft.

THE INITIAL AND SUBSEQUENT DRAFTS MUST BE WORD-PROCESSED. Remember to keep at least two back-up copies of your work on separate UBS.

The initial draft should seek to answer the question/brief in our own words. Inevitably, your ideas, at this point, will not be fully thought through. You may place too much emphasis on one point or argument and too little on another, the logical flow of the arguments may be weak, key concepts may not be properly defined, the work may be too long, some ambiguous points may be included, and the like. But, your initial ideas are word-processed and can be worked upon.

The process of editing and amending is absolutely vital to any good answer. It allows you to refine and amend your initial ideas and delete irrelevant material. At this point you need to make sure items are sourced correctly, the logical flow of your essay is strong, there is no unnecessary padding and that each sentence is properly constructed. It is also important to decide which points are important enough to go into the main text of the answer and which can be included as endnotes.

Material included in endnotes should AMPLIFY AND CLARIFY the content included in the main body of the answer. However, material in endnotes will not directly answer the question. Endnotes help you focus logically in the main text on answering the question, whilst showing you are aware of other related materials. The main text should take the reader on the road to a destination as quickly as possible; endnotes show the interesting diversions and side streets along the way.

Think carefully before including a quotation. Ask why are you including it? Can you summarise it in your own words? Are you including it because you do not have the confidence to summarise material in your own words? You must have a good and clear reason for including a quote (e.g. it is a famous quote, or it so well written is sums up a key point succinctly). The inclusion of many quotes, included for no apparent reason, suggests a lack of confidence on the part of the writer. It will lose you marks.

The windows software is particularly helpful in the process of editing and amending an initial draft. It allows you to cut and paste material, delete and add with great ease. It also allows the introduction of endnotes with great simplicity. IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS….ASK THE TUTOR!

The Final Draft

THE FINAL DRAFT MUST BE WORD-PROCESSED. Remember to keep at least two back-up copies of your work on a separate UBS.

This is the most important part of the whole exercise; this is the material that will be assessed. REMEMBER ONLY YOUR OUTPUTS (e.g. the final submitted work) ARE ASSESSED, NOT YOU INPUTS (reading of materials, drafting and editing etc). If the submitted work is not good enough then all your other efforts have been wasted.

The final draft should be the polished piece of work, in which your ideas are fully developed. The question(s) posed should be answered, and as soon as possible in the main body of the work. Key concepts and ideas must be clearly defined. The submitted work should have a logical flow. Each paragraph should be linked to the one prior to it and subsequent to it. The arguments of the authors should be fairly summarised and referenced using the Harvard method. Endnotes should be include at the relevant time, and referenced using the Harvard method. The bibliography should be set out using the Harvard method and be referred to in the text and endnotes where appropriate. There should be an appropriate introduction and conclusion.

The importance of citation and referencing cannot be overstated. In an academic piece of work it is essential that the sources you have read and summarised are TRANSPARENT. The reader should be able to follow-up on your citations to check that you have summarised the arguments fairly and appropriately. If you do not cite and reference properly such transparency is not evident. For the appropriate Harvard method of citations and referencing see Quote, Unquote.

Finally, draft out an appropriate introduction, which SIGNPOSTS the contents of the submitted work. After reading the introduction, the reader should have a very clear idea what to expect; it is vital to signpost important insights made. Finally, write out a conclusion. This should summarise the salient points of the work – highlighting, once again, any key insights. It should NOT include your opinions; you should never use the phrases such as “I believe”, or “I think”, and the like.
When completing the final draft consider the following points.
• Has the actual question/brief posed been answered (not one you would have liked to answer)?
• Are key concepts properly defined?
• Is there a logical, balanced structure? Have the arguments of the key authors been summarised fairly?
• Is there any irrelevant material included?
• Does the introduction signpost the contents, and does the conclusion summarise the salient points?
• Are endnotes included when appropriate?
• Are all the relevant arguments properly cited?
• Is the bibliography set out correctly; are bibliographical references consistent with the citations in the main body of the work and endnotes?


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