Functionalism

Functionalism

This resource will assist you to complete the Assessment #3. This assessment involves a Case Study used to identify key health problems, set goals and decide on nursing interventions for a client.
Before you start the assessment, it is essential that you:
• Read the Marking guide, where the expectations related to assessment tasks are outlined. It could also be used to evaluate the quality of your own work as it progresses.
• Refer to the Academic Skills for Nursing and Midwifery Students booklet, which will assist you with academic writing in Australian universities.
What is considered an assessment tool?
Nursing assessment is systemic collection of client’s health information. Nursing assessment can be conducted without a medical order. “X-ray” is not considered as an assessment tool in this assessment, as it needs to be ordered and reviewed by medical officer.
Nursing assessment tools refer to all of the following categories:
1) nursing charts (e.g. Observation and Response Chart)
2) validated scales (e.g. Braden Risk Assessment Scale)
3) physical health assessment (e.g. respiratory assessment)
Good examples of nursing charts and/or validated scales can be found in the “PBL assessment tools” folder on the course home page, however, are NOT limited to what’s listed in this folder.

What is considered a health problem?
Health problem in the context of nursing refers to the health deficits associated with an actual/potential medical diagnosis. For example, a patient with asthma has a health problem of “shortness of breath”.
More examples of health problem can be found in the document “NANDA Nursing Diagnosis”.
It is important to note that although we have directed you to the nursing diagnosis document, you do not have to write a nursing diagnosis in this assessment. Please just use this document to help you think what could be the health problems your client face. It is totally acceptable to phrase differently from what’s written in the “NANDA Nursing Diagnosis”, as long as the health problem is articulated well.

A guide to Assessment 3, case study
Click for a guide to Assessment 3. The guide developed based on a client suffering from stroke. Please be advised that it is a guide only, and are not answers to your Assessment 3.
We wish you every success!
Andie Xu (Course Co-ordinator), Julie Hill (Associate Course Coordinator), Cathy Mahar (Library), and Bev Kokkinn (Learning & Teaching Unit)

 

Analysing the Case
As you read, write down any thoughts you have about Mr David King/Mrs Mable Harris and her/his care. Use the ‘wh-‘ questions to help you. Think of questions using:
What …? (e.g. what care does the patient need?)
Who …? (e.g. who can provide that care?)
When …?
Why …?
How …?
Make notes about the case to help you decide important health problems, possible, relevant goals and interventions.
Searching for information
Before you begin searching
Tip: Watch the Think. Plan. Discover. Why keywords matter video.
1. Break the topic into key words.
2. Think of any alternative words or spellings for each concept (sometimes there may be none). For example, you may need to search for older adults or elderly or aged, as any of these terms may be used in the literature.
3. Are any of the keywords abbreviated? For example, evidence based practice is also referred to as EBP.
Finding peer reviewed/scholarly journal articles
What is a peer reviewed journal article? Watch the Scholary sources explained video. As part of the assessment criteria you are required to use peer reviewed journal articles. In the Catalogue and many of the databases you can limit to peer reviewed articles, and information on how to do this is outlined below.
Searching the Library Catalogue
Access the Catalogue via the Library home page. It searches across the Library’s collection of print and electronic books, journals and theses, together with scholarly journal and newspaper articles from numerous (but not all) databases.
Catalogue searching tips
Type your keywords into the search box. Some searching tips include:
• use quotation marks ” ” around phrases to help make the search results more precise, eg “blood pressure”
• use * at the end of words that have multiple endings, eg nurs* will find references on nurse, nurses, nursing or nursed – it makes your search more comprehensive
• the Catalogue will automatically AND the keywords together

Refining your search
Then use the features in the left hand menu to refine the search:
• in the Show only box select Peer Reviewed
• in the Date box, type in 2009, 2014 and then update
• in the Subject box, select an appropriate heading to limit your results to a major focus of the article
For more information about the article, click on the article title.
Accessing the full text
To access the full text, look for the Online link found at the bottom of each article – in this example full text is available for all articles published from 1995.

Searching databases – CINAHL
Databases allow smarter searching for peer reviewed journal articles, conference papers, some books and reports. CINAHL and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition are examples of 2 databases that have a nursing focus.
Tip: Before you begin searching, watch the Health Source: Nursing/Academic edition online video, which has been produced by UniSA Library. Although the search will not be on your topic, it provides an excellent introduction to searching in EBSCO, and you can use the same process when searching CINAHL.
Accessing CINAHL
• From the Library home page, go to Useful links> select Databases and journals.
• Select the Database subjects > N link, and scroll to Nursing . Select CINAHL
• The database description page will open. Select the blue link under access
• Select I agree to the terms and conditions of use
• You will see a list of databases to choose from. Click on the CINAHL link.
Search strategy
• Multiple search boxes will appear.
• In the example below, see how the search has been entered: fall* in one box; nurs* in another; then the variations of keywords related to older adults which are linked together using OR. The + sign at the bottom right of the search boxes indicates more search boxes can be added if required.

Before you hit the Search button, you can immediately apply some limits:
• Tick the boxes for English Language, and Peer Reviewed
• You could also limit by Published Date, for example 2009 to 2014 – or you can wait and do this on the results screen
• There is a limit to Linked Full Text – but you may miss some really great articles, so don’t tick this box!

Refining your search
• In the left hand frame, look at the Refine results options:
o Use the Date box to limit your results to a defined date range. In this search, only articles published from 2009-2014 should display
o Use the Subject box to limit your results to only those articles that have a major focus for that heading
o To see the abstract for the article, click on the title link to view the full record, or put the mouse over the magnifying glass icon.

Saving references and accessing full text
• Save useful references by clicking the folder icon next to each title. Once you’ve finished selecting the references, go to the Folder has items box at the top right corner of your search results.You can print, save or email the results. If using the email option, the PDF of the article will be sent if available.
• Tip: Get into the habit of always emailing the references to yourself, so you have all the necessary information to be able to accurately cite and reference the articles in Harvard UniSA style. Keep the email until after you have submitted the assessment.
• Some references will only have a Find IT button. Click on Find it to start a search of the Library Catalogue for this reference.
• For more information about Find it see the How to find a full text article using Find it guide.
How do I know if a reference is peer reviewed?
If you have searched a database such as CINAHL, Health Source: Nursing Academic Edition, or the Library Catalogue you can use the limits or refine options to restrict your results to peer reviewed or scholarly articles. If you have been given an article by a friend and want to know if it is peer reviewed, use Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory to see if thejournal is peer reviewed, or do a search for the journal on Google and check the information about the journal.
Need help?
• contact the Ask the Library service or ask at the Library Service Desk
• contact the Academic Library Services Team- Division of Health Sciences
LBY-Health-DivLibrarians@unisa.edu.au
• external students can use the Off Campus Library Service for help with assignments and document/book delivery
Regardless of whether you are searching the Catalogue or a database, and the screens look different, you can apply a similar search process each time when searching for the best information for your assessments!

Drafting the sections of the paper
Step 1
Read the assessment details in the Course Outline for each Question. Check the expectations made clear in theMarking Guide on the course website, Assignment Help.
(Repeat this step everytime you start to work on this assignment after a break to make sure you remain focused on answering the question that has been set.)
Step 2
Write your responses as dot points.
Develop these dot points into sentences and then develop your paragraphs in a logical succinct way so that they flow. (see ‘Writing good paragraphs’). Use the resource on linking words to help create a good flow in your writing.

Writing a client-centred goal
Below is an example of a long term goal for a different client (Edward) who has schizophrenia and suffers hallucinations. This example provides one model for writing a client-centred goal.
One goal for the patient is that Edward will state that he feels comfortable with voices. He will demonstrate that he can manage and control voices by identifying two personal interventions that will decrease or lower the intensity or frequency of auditory hallucinations, within one week.
Note:
• The client will … (do something achievable)
• By -ing … (action = identifying the two personal interventions)
• Within … (time frame)

Writing a rationale
When you decide on the intervention for the patient you need to provide a rationale for your decision based on your reading – this is where you make clear that you have evidence for the intervention to be successful or effective.
Model for writing a rationale for a different case:
The administration of drugs will help diminish the psychotic symptoms (auditory hallucinations). It is necessary to monitor side effects because Carsons (2000) states that antipsychotic agents reduce psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations. Additionally, they … and for this reason these medications produce numerous side effects which require monitoring (Boyd & Nihart 1998).
Example from: O’Connor, T 2001, Assignment writing: a guide for undergraduate students, School of Nursing, Janes Cook University, QLD.

Writing an intervention
The following is an example of how to write an intervention for a different client (Edward).
Administer antipsychotic medication as ordered and monitor for adverse reactions and side effects. Educate Edward about the therapeutic effects of medication and the role it plays in reducing psychotic symptoms.

Note:
}Actions (Administer…; Monitor…; Educate…) }Relate to scenario (Since Edward has…)

Revising and redrafting
By now you are probably tired of even thinking about the assignment! But it’s worth a percentage of your final grade so please take the time to edit and proofread it well. Revising and redrafting are vital steps before handing up a successful paper.
Read the assignment out aloud and slowly – pretend you are reading it to someone over the phone. It’s amazing how much your ears will pick up that your eyes just skip over!
Strategies for revising and redrafting:
• Check the Assessment Feedback Form to make sure you have stayed on track with the assignment.
• Leave some time between completing the first draft and editing your work.
• Check one aspect of your writing at a time e.g. just read it aloud for checking the flow; just read it aloud to check tenses etc.
• Remember spell check is not content specific – e.g. it will not pick up differences in usage between ‘there’ and ‘their’.
• Use a printed copy to do your revising and editing.
• Read each sentence slowly and carefully.
• Read the paper aloud as this allows you to hear when your language is not clear.
• Ask a friend to read your paper for you.
Checklist
• Is the language clear and easy to understand?
• Have you understood the topic?
• Is your argument logical and well supported?
• Are paragraphs linked and well structured?
• Does the paper follow the marking criteria? Have you answered the question and included all that is needed?
• Is the referencing accurate?
• Is the assignment formatted correctly?

Referencing Reminders
Remember that academic writing is based on wide reading of academic sources and you MUST acknowledge the writings and ideas of other people by using a referencing system.
The referencing in your assignment shows two things:
• the broad range of ideas and approaches to the topic that you found and thought about
• your acknowledgement of where these ideas came from.

Three main rules
1. Each reference must appear in two places:
in the text of your assignment each time it is used (the in-text reference)
AND
once in the reference list at the end of the assignment. This listing has full details so that your readers can track down the reference if they want to.
2. A reference must be included every time you use someone else’s ideas or information so when you:
• paraphrase (express someone else’s idea in your own words)
• summarise (express someone else’s idea in a reduced form in your own words)
• quote (express someone else’s idea in their exact words) or
• copy (reproduce a diagram, graph or table from someone else’s work).
3. Use the Harvard referencing system as explained in the UniSA guide.

Referencing Forum
Read other students questions and discussion about using the Harvard referencing system and post your own questions and comments to the Forum.
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