Answer the following questions

1. What is the biopsychosocial model? Define health psychology. Provide examples of both contagious and chronic diseases. Which is of more serious concern today, contagious or chronic diseases? Why?
2. Define stress. Distinguish between primary and secondary appraisal. Also, distinguish between acute and chronic stressors.
3. Define the following: frustration, pressure, change (life changes), and conflict. Distinguish between the following types of conflict: approach-approach, avoidance-avoidance, and approach-avoidance.
4. What is the Social Readjustment Rating Scale? Why would positive events produce stress, according to Holmes and Rahe? Does research suggest that change is inherently stressful? Is pressure more strongly related to measures of mental health (such as the SRRS) and other measures of stress?
5. Summarize the commonly-elicited emotional responses to stress. What is the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions?
6. Summarize the effects of emotional arousal to stress. What is the inverted-U hypothesis?
7. What is the fight-or-flight response? Which nervous system mediates the fight-or-flight response? What is the general adaptation syndrome (GAS), and who proposed it? (Be sure to discuss the three stages of the GAS).
8. What is the endocrine system? Discuss, in detail, the two brain-body pathways in stress. Are there sex differences in reactivity along both of these brain-body pathways? What is neurogenesis? Does stress impact it?
9. Define coping and learned helplessness. Summarize the link between stress and “giving up and blaming oneself”.
10. Define aggression. What is the “frustration-aggression” hypothesis? What is “catharsis”?
11. Summarize the link between stress and self-indulgence. What is “internet addiction”?
12. Define defense mechanisms. What do they defend against? How do defense mechanisms work? Are defense mechanisms healthy?
13. What is constructive coping? Describe the three features of constructive coping.
14. Summarize the link between stress and impaired task performance.
15. What is burnout? Summarize the antecedents, components, and consequences of burnout.
16. Summarize the link between stress and psychological disorders.
17. Summarize the positive effects of stress. What is resilience stress?
18. What are psychosomatic diseases? Distinguish between coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis? Also, distinguish between Type A and Type B personalities. Which specific component of Type A personality is most related to coronary heart disease?
19. Summarize the link between emotional reactions, depression, and heart disease. Can depression lead to cardiac disease?
20. What is the immune response? Summarize the link between stress and immune functioning. Also, Summarize the link between stress and illness.
21. What is social support? Summarize the link between stress and social support.
22. What is optimism? Summarize the link between stress and optimism.
23. Summarize how health is affected by smoking, exercise, and alcohol & drug use.
24. What is acquired immune deficiency syndrome? Summarize the link between behavior and AIDS. (Be sure to address how HIV is transmitted, and how one can minimize the risk of developing AIDS.)
25. Summarize how health-impairing behaviors develop.
26. Summarize the major problems in deciding to seek medical treatments, and describe some barriers to effective patient-provider communication.
27. Summarize the many factors that affect adherence to medical advice.
28. What is catastrophic thinking? Summarize Albert Ellis’s ideas about controlling one’s emotions.
29. Analyze the adaptive value of using humor, releasing pent-up emotions, and forging others.
30. According to Herbert Benson, what are the four factors that promote effective relaxation? Assess how one can minimize physiological vulnerability through exercise.
31. Summarize the important considerations in evaluating health statistics and making health decisions.

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