Advanced Nursing Practice
1. Please do critique peers #1 and #2 only; write 4-5 sentences for each peer . That is it. Thank you
In your participation responses to your peers, comments must demonstrate thorough analysis of postings and extends meaningful discussion by building on previous postings.
Discussion Question 1 for peer # 1 and # 2
Discuss any three risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. For any one of these risk factors, discuss what you might include in an educational plan for your patient who has yet to develop heart disease. Make sure you adopt an integrated approach to assess your patient?s needs. Your focus here is on primary prevention.
Peer # 1 Erin
Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of death for women, and approximately 600,000 people die from this disease each year in the United States (Buttaro, Trybulski, Bailey, & Sandberg-
Cook, 2013, p. 848; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). There are various risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, and some of these risks cannot be
modified such as heredity. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), genetics often play a role in the development of high blood pressure, vascular conditions, and heart
disease (2009). However, physical inactivity and obesity also increase the risk for developing cardiovascular disease, and each of these risks are modifiable (Buttaro et al., 2013, p. 107). People are
living longer lives, but there is an increase of obesity and sedentary lifestyle (Mooney, 2012, p. 59). Obesity involves an excess of body fat, and it is often associated with higher cholesterol and
triglyceride levels, high blood pressure, and diabetes (CDC, 2009). Obesity generally occurs due to an overconsumption of calories and a lack of physical activity (Kokkinos, 2012, p. 14). It is essential to
identify individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease and other chronic illnesses in order to prevent severe health problems from occurring (Mooney, 2012, p. 59). Physical inactivity and living a sedentary
lifestyle predisposes individuals to the development of cardiovascular disease as well as high blood pressure, high triglycerides, a lower level of HDL cholesterol, obesity, and diabetes (CDC, 2009).
Physical inactivity is a lifestyle choice that contributes to the main causes of death in the United States (Buttaro et al., 2013, p. 120). Also, men are normally more physically active than women (Buttaro
et al., 2023, p. 120).
Physical activity has been added to the Healthy People 2020 objectives in order to improve health, fitness, and quality of life for individuals through daily physical activity (Healthy People, 2013).
Physical activity involves participating in moderate and vigorous activities as well as muscle-strengthening activities (Healthy People, 2013). Physical activity recommendations include sustaining
vigorous physical activity involving the large muscle groups for at least 20 minutes for three or more days a week (CDC, 2009). Participating in regular physical activity helps to improve musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular, respiratory, and endocrine system functions (CDC, 2009). It also helps to reduce premature death, reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer, diabetes, and
depression (CDC, 2009).
Patients need to be educated on the benefits and risks associated with regular physical activity. Many of the benefits and recommendations are aforementioned, and the most common risk
associated with physical activity is musculoskeletal injuries (CDC, 2009). Many people participate in light physical activity on a daily basis such as cooking or shopping, but moderate to vigorous physical
activities need to be performed for exercise (CDC, 2014). Some examples include walking fast, performing aerobics, riding a bike, pushing a lawn mower, jogging, running, or playing basketball (CDC,
2014). It is important for each individual to be properly evaluated by a health care provider prior to beginning a new physical activity (CDC, 2014). The health care provider will be able to help determine if
there are physical activities that should not be performed as well as helping patients with disabilities determine the right type of physical activity to participate in (CDC, 2014). Brisk walking is generally
safe for most people to participate in, but if an individual needs to participate in a low impact exercise program, water aerobics may be a great form of physical activity for them (CDC, 2014).
It is essential for individuals to start slowly and gradually increase physical activity, especially if they usually live a sedentary lifestyle (CDC, 2014). It is important for individuals to wear appropriate
clothes and shoes when exercising in order to prevent injury and remember to drink plenty of water. Comfortable, climate appropriate clothing should be worn, but the clothing should not have any loose
material that could get caught in equipment or cause injury. It is also important to read and understand how to appropriately use equipment so that injury does not occur. There are activities such as
walking briskly around the neighborhood or at the mall that can be performed on a low budget and during inclement weather. Individuals should be encouraged to perform physical exercise in a well-lit
area in order to prevent injury. It is important for patients to be educated on the importance of slowly becoming active and increasing their intensity slowly to perform physical activity that meets their
abilities (CDC, 2014).
Buttaro, T. M., Trybulski, J., Bailey, P. P., & Sandberg-Cook, J. (2013). Primary care: A collaborative practice. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009, November). Heart disease. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/heredity.htm
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014, March). Physical Activity. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/eveyone/guidelines/adults.html
Healthy People. (2013). Physical activity. Retrieved from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx/?topicid=33
Kokkinos, P. (2012). Physical activity, health benefits, and mortality risk. ISRN Cardiology, 2012(718789), 14. doi:10.5402/2012/718789
Mooney, T. (2012). Cardiovascular disease. Nursing Standard, 26(39), 59. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1018555394?accountid=87314
Peer # 2 Lindsey
Three risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease is being overweight or obese, not being physically active, and the use of tobacco products or smoking. These risk factors are modifiable and can be treated or changed to lower one?s risk of developing heart disease.
The more a person weighs, the more blood is needed to supply oxygen to the body?s tissues. The volume of blood that is circulated through the body?s vessels increases the pressure on the artery walls, thus causing cardiovascular disease and hypertension (Mayo Clinic, 2014). Eating healthy foods and following a heart healthy diet that includes whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and low fat dairy foods can prevent and control high blood pressure (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). A healthy diet also maintains a healthy weight or can promote weight loss. Limiting the intake of saturated fat and total fat has proven to be heart healthy as well. If overweight, a weight loss of 2.3 kg can lower a person?s blood pressure and decrease their risk for cardiovascular disease (Mayo Clinic, 2014).
Not being physically active is a risk for cardiovascular disease and people who are not regularly active tend to have higher heart rates. The higher one?s heart rate is the harder the heart must work as it contracts, thus causing a stronger force on the arteries (Mayo Clinic, 2014). The lack of activity can cause obesity and risk of being over weight. Regular exercise and physical activity can help lower blood pressure and maintain a healthy weight, thus decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). Recommended that a person should strive for at least 30 minutes of exercise (brisk walker or biking) per day (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014).
Smoking and tobacco use causes injuries to blood vessels and speeds up the process of hardening and narrowing of the arteries, making tobacco use a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (Mayo Clinic, 2014). Tobacco use and secondhand smoke can immediately raise your blood pressure temporarily. To lower the risk of cardiovascular disease the person must stop using tobacco products and stop smoking (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014).
Focusing on primary prevention, I would develop an educational plan that would include a focus on healthy dietary habits. This educational plan would include: keep an energy balance, indicated by a body mass index below 25 kg/m2, consume <10% of energy from saturated fat, consume <2% of energy from trans. fat, eat fish at least once a week, eat ?400 g of vegetables and fruits per day, limit salt consumption to <6 g/d, and use of alcohol in moderation (Kromhout, 2002).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014, March). Physical activity. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity.html
Kromhout, D. (2002). Prevention of coronary heart disease by diet and lifestyle. Retrieved from http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/105/7/893.full
Mayo Clinic. (2014). Hypertension. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/basics/lifestyle-home-remedies/con-20019580
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