Psychology

Psychology

A researcher has recorded the reaction times of 20 individuals on a memory assessment. The following table indicates the individual times:

2.2 4.7 7.3 4.1
9.5 15.2 4.3 9.5
2.7 3.1 9.2 2.9
8.2 7.6 3.5 2.5
9.3 4.8 8.5 8.1

In this essay, demonstrate your ability to organize data into meaningful sets, calculate basic descriptive statistics, interpret the results, and evaluate the effects of outliers and changes in the variables. You may use Excel, one of the many free online descriptive statistics calculators, or calculate the values by hand and/or with a calculator.

Next, separate the data into two groups of 10; one group will be the lower reaction times, and the second group will be the higher reaction times.

Then, address the following points in your essay response:

• Calculate the sum, mean, mode, median, standard deviation, range, skew, and kurtosis for each group.
• How do the two groups differ?
• Are there any outliers in either data group?
• What effect does an outlier have on a sample?

Lastly, double each sample by repeating the same 10 data points in each group. You will have a total of 20 data points for each group. After completing this, address the following in your essay response:

• Calculate the following for the new data groups: sum, mean, mode, median, standard deviation, range, skew, and kurtosis.
• Did any of the values change?
• How does sample size affect those values?

29

Question 1
1.
According to Cattell, a person trying to solve an entirely new kind of problem is using his or her __________, whereas a person working on a task that he or she knows well is using his or her __________.
Answer

a.    general ability, specific ability

b.    intelligence B, intelligence A

c.    fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence

d.    verbal ability, performance ability
1 points
Question 2
1.
Which test is among the most commonly used intelligence instruments?
Answer

a.    Stanford-Binet

b.    Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children

c.    Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

d.    Cognitive Assessment System
1 points
Question 3
1.
The Wechsler scales all have a mean of ____ and a standard deviation of ____.
Answer

a.    100, 15

b.    500, 100

c.    50, 10

d.    0, 1
1 points
Question 4
1.
Which instrument is designed to identify specific abilities by providing insight on how children process information?
Answer

a.    Differential Ability Scales ? Second Edition (DAS-II)

b.    Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC)

c.    Slosson Intelligence Test ? Revised, Third Edition (SIT-R3)

d.    Ability-Processing Scale (APS)
1 points
Question 5
1.
The studies with the strongest research methodology related to the effect of age on intelligence test scores indicate that intelligence:
Answer

a.    Is stable over the life-span and can be accurately measured in preschool children

b.    Gradually declines after the age of 20, with the decline becoming more apparent after 50

c.    Is mostly stable throughout adulthood with little variation until death

d.    Is mostly stable throughout adulthood with slight declines after 65 in the area of fluid intelligence
1 points
Question 6
1.
An individual?s intelligence appears to be:
Answer

a.    Almost exclusively influenced by his/her genetic makeup

b.    Predominantly influenced by environmental factors

c.    Influenced by both genes and environment, in complex interplay

d.    Influenced by both genes and environment, with environment being the major contributor
1 points
Question 7
1.
Concerning ethnic differences on intelligence tests:
Answer

a.    Asian Americans score significantly higher than Whites, which accounts for the high proportion of Asian Americans in technical occupations

b.    African Americans tend to score lower than Whites, but researchers have not been able to identify why this disparity exists

c.    Hispanic Americans have the lowest average test scores of any ethnic group

d.    Hispanic American and Native American children tend to score lower on performance items as compared to verbal items
1 points
Question 8
1.
Achievement tests typically focus on _____________, while aptitude tests focus on ______________.
Answer

a.    classification, diagnosis

b.    acquired learning, potential

c.    sensory-motor tasks, performance tasks

d.    the future, the past
1 points
Question 9
1.
In comparison to the ____________ model, the ____________ model assesses the complexities of learning disabilities better than a one-step process where an individual is tested once and diagnosed.
Answer

a.    discrepancy; Response to Intervention

b.    Response to Intervention; discrepancy

c.    immediate responsiveness; subjective interpretation

d.    subjective interpretation; immediate responsiveness
1 points
Question 10
1.
Authentic and performance assessments strive for greater realism and complexity of tasks under the premise that real-life problems can often be solved ______________.
Answer

a.    in multiple ways

b.    with a single, most effective approach

c.    with the help of others

d.    if given enough time
1 points
Question 11
1.
The rationale underlying portfolio assessment is that:
Answer

a.    Multiple measures of performance over time provide a better indication of student strengths and weaknesses

b.    Gathering multiple indicators of performance allows teachers more time to compile student report cards

c.    Single tests to measure student achievement are more time- and cost-efficient than collecting achievement measures over time

d.    Portfolio assessment has been found to be more reliable and valid than classroom-based tests
1 points
Question 12
1.
When an individual is skillful in maneuvering through the format of a test, the individual has ____________ skills.
Answer

a.    test coaching

b.    test formatting

c.    test sophistication

d.    test performance
1 points
Question 13
1.
When interpreting a client?s Strong Interest Inventory, the counselor should:
Answer

a.    Focus on the Occupational Scales because they are the most reliable

b.    Move from general interests to more specific interests (e.g., certain occupations)

c.    Provide the profile to the client and answer any questions that might arise

d.    Start with the Occupational Scales and then move to the General Occupational Scales
1 points
Question 14
1.
Research indicates that computer-assisted career guidance systems are:
Answer

a.    Quite comprehensive and require little additional counseling

b.    More effective when they are used in conjunction with counseling

c.    More reliable and valid than paper-and-pencil inventories

d.    Effective with adults but should not be used with adolescents
1 points
Question 15
1.
If a counselor is interested in assessing the degree to which a client has mastered the appropriate developmental career tasks, then he or she would use a:
Answer

a.    Career certainty measure

b.    Career decision making measure

c.    Career maturity measure

d.    Career progress measure
1 points
Question 16
1.
When interpreting the results of career assessments with ethnic minority clients, it is recommended that counselors:
Answer

a.    Explore both the perceived and actual barriers to career-related opportunities

b.    Take the assessment results at face value

c.    Approach the task of assessment interpretation in the same way for all clients, regardless of ethnic background

d.    Recommend that clients seek guidance from a counselor who shares their ethnic background
1 points
Question 17
1.
If an instrument has been translated into another language, there should be evidence:
Answer

a.    Of reliability and validity for the translated version of the instrument

b.    That the instrument has retained its meaning after being translated

c.    That the translated instrument is equivalent to the original (e.g., same difficulty level)

d.    All of the above
1 points
Question 18
1.
Bilingual individuals are likely to be specialized by domain (e.g., use one language for school and work and a second language for home and social events); therefore, some researchers suggest that bilingual individuals be:
Answer

a.    Given both performance and nonverbal tests

b.    Assessed in both languages

c.    Tested on social construct in their native language

d.    Given intelligent tests in their native language
1 points
Question 19
1.
When using interest inventories with clients with disabilities, a counselor should:
Answer

a.    Not give any instructions to clients in order avoid influencing their answers

b.    Expect lower scores and include that in the interpretation

c.    Instruct the clients to respond with their preferences, not their capabilities

d.    Focus more on achievement assessment because of the disabilities
1 points
Question 20
1.
Historically, clients with hearing impairment were often assessed using instruments that involved reading; however, this assessment strategy is flawed because:
Answer

a.    It ignores the connection between hearing and reading ability

b.    It is a violation of standardized administration procedures to require clients to read test items for themselves

c.    It is unethical to use verbally-based assessments with individuals with hearing impairment

d.    None of the above
1 points
Question 21
1.
A potential complication in identifying mental health issues in older individuals is that:
Answer

a.    They are less likely to openly share information about their mental health with counselors

b.    They are less likely to seek help from counselors and their mental health issues may be overlooked

c.    There are typically many other health concerns that take precedence over addressing mental health

d.    Some mental health issues may have a unique presentation in older individuals, and may be difficult to distinguish from cognitive impairment
1 points
Question 22
1.
The ?Test Review Online? feature of the Buros Institute website allows users to:
Answer

a.    Provide feedback to test publishers on the content and structure of current versions of assessments

b.    Download sample questions and interpretation reports for many assessment tools

c.    Identify assessment instruments that may potentially be useful with certain clients

d.    Order assessment materials over the Internet
1 points
Question 23
1.
What is the term that applies when the content of an assessment depends on the interactive process between the individual and the computer?
Answer

a.    Technology-adapted assessment

b.    Computer-assisted assessment

c.    Computerized testing

d.    Technologically-adapted testing
1 points
Question 24
1.
Although the use of mobile technology (i.e., smart phones, tablets) may facilitate the collection of behavioral, emotional, or cognitive data between sessions, there exists concern about _________________ when using these methods.
Answer

a.    accuracy

b.    client honesty

c.    clinical utility

d.    privacy and confidentiality
1 points
Question 25
1.
What might a counselor consider before asking a client to take a computer-administered inventory?
Answer

a.    Client age, gender, and interests

b.    Level of comfort and computer experience

c.    Test sophistication skills and background

d.    Socioeconomic status and intelligence
1 points
Question 26
1.
The fact that online instruments may not be available to individuals who do not have access to computers and/or the Internet raises concerns about the ______________ of online assessments.
Answer

a.    content

b.    scoring

c.    norming groups

d.    interpretation
1 points
Question 27
1.
In examining future trends in appraisal in counseling, the most probable trend is:
Answer

a.    Increased use of personality tests in school settings

b.    Increased use of technology and the Internet

c.    Decreased use of career and personality assessments

d.    Decreased use of computer-adapted instruments
1 points
Question 28
1.
Ethical and legal issues related to assessment will probably:
Answer

a.    Decrease in the coming years

b.    Increase in the coming years

c.    Stay the same as time goes on

d.    Disappear as technological sophistication increases
1 points
Question 29
1.
Which of the following is the most serious disadvantage of group intelligence or general ability tests?
Answer

a.    Too many items in a given total score

b.    Group tests use only a single item format

c.    Too little attention to the examinee?s motivation and/or anxiety levels

d.    The time needed to administer group tests
1 points
Question 30
1.
A major advantage of the TerraNova achievement battery is it:
Answer

a.    Includes a language arts test while other achievement batteries do not

b.    Is a good predictor of students? future academic performance

c.    Provides a thorough indication of students? general ability levels

d.    Provides both norm-referenced information and criterion-referenced information based on item response theory

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