Human Management Resources

1. Which of the following is NOT one of the strategic choices managers must sometimes make?

a. Should we remain with the existing strategy or change to a new one?
b. What has or has not changed in our environment?
c. Will our change affect other functional areas?
d. What will our competitors do?
e. All of the above are strategic choices.
2. A strategic plan consists of which of the following?

a. Goals and objectives
b. Objectives and action plans
c. Goals and action plans
d. Goals and contingencies
e. None of the above

3. Under this system the production of goods and services are generated by small groups of workers in
relatively small workplaces, usually in the home.

a. The Industrial Revolution
b. The Craft System
c. Behavioral Science
d. Environmental Scanning
4. The following are characteristics that Human Resource professionals should possess except

a. ability to work in teams settings.
b. highly autocratic leadership skills.
c. strong communication abilities.
d. highly developed leadership skills.
e. good human relations skills.
5. One of the goals in strategic human resource management with respect to the outside environment is

a. to avoid threats while looking for opportunities within the company.
b. to locate opportunities while scanning for threats within the company.
c. to capitalize on potential opportunities and minimize potential threats.
d. to capitalize on potential opportunities and threats.

6. The concept that illustrates that the combined whole of the company is more valuable than the sum of its
parts is known as

a. mass production.
b. mass customization.
c. production prototypes.
d. organization blueprints.
e. economies of scope.
7. From a strategic and economic perspective, the underlying decision an organization must make regarding its
human resources is its

a. financial plans.
b. grievance turnover records.
c. capital/labor ratio.
d. marketing mix strategies.
e. sales forecast.
8. When formulating a corporate strategy, managers must consider several

a. strategic choices.
b. recruiting procedures.
c. employment tests.
d. background checks.
e. interviewing techniques.
9. In large organizations where the power is diffused, the philosophy and ethical values of decision makers

a. labor unions.
b. competition.
c. governmental units.
d. strategy.
e. business agents.
10. What type of employees will be needed by firms in a growth mode?

a. employees good at repetition and who are predictable
b. employees who are risk takers and who are innovative
c. employees at the entry-level who accept that promotion comes from within
d. employees who are loyal and accept that length of service is rewarded
11. According to Cynthia Fisher, there are two growth strategies that impact human resource management. These
strategies are classified as

a. operating/tactical plans.
b. centralized/de-centralized authority.
c. growth/mature strategies.
d. closed/union shops.
12. What type of incentive structure will exist in mature-defender—cost competitor firms?

a. heavy use of performance incentives
b. profit sharing, stock options, and bonuses
c. hierarchical wage structures based on job evaluation
d. modest base salaries
13. What is true about corporate and functional/human resource strategy?

a. Corporate strategy always drives functional strategies.
b. The formulation of corporate strategy is interactive with functional strategies.
c. The formulation of corporate strategy follows functional strategy formulation.
d. Functional strategies always drive corporate strategies.
14. Human resources management is generally seen as a way to connect a company’s upper level strategic
decisions to the lower-level day to day

a. business strategies.
b. objectives or goals.
c. tasks of employees.
d. organization policy.
e. procedures and rules.


15. Which of the following type of firm aggressively seeks to develop both new products and new markets?

a. defender
b. prospector
c. analyzer
d. reactor
e. all of the above
16. Which of the following is not a component of the societal environment?

a. economy
b. labor market
c. social/demographic
d. the union of a firm
e. technology
17. The following are components of the economic component of the societal environment except

a. unemployment rate.
b. GNP.
c. inflation rate.
d. real disposable income.
18. Technological advances can be reflected in the following except

a. unemployment rates.
b. education levels.
c. occupation levels.
d. the age and gender mix.
e. the workforce composition.
19. What is true about periods of low unemployment?

a. They exist at around the 7.2% unemployment-rate figure.
b. It is difficult to attract employees at these times.
c. It is easy to cut wage rates at these times.
d. These are the times unions will strike.




20. Different cultures can vary on the following factors except

a. creativity.
b. daily habits and hygiene.
c. leadership.
d. motivation.
e. They can vary on all of the above.
21. The trend toward globalization has compelled managers to learn to deal with different

a. cultures, norms, practices, and attitudes.
b. physical characteristics such as breakdowns.
c. occupational characteristics of U.S. jobs.
d. a and b only
e. a and c only
22. The fifth choice in the human resource plan involves flexibility, which is the ability of the plan to
anticipate and deal with

a. environmental assessment.
b. contingencies.
c. strategic planning.
d. job analysis.
e. job evaluation.
23. The key link between a firm’s strategic plan and its overall human resource management function is

a. human resource planning.
b. organization restructuring.
c. employee downsizing.
d. job analysis.
e. performance evaluation.
24. Human resource planning is influenced by

a. orientation and training.
b. recruiting and selection.
c. interviews and observations.
d. national employment and economic policy planning.
e. sexual harassment and discrimination charges.
25. The sequential process for dealing with the organization’s job requirements vis-a-vis the labor market is

a. when an organization first hires and develops its human resources, performs job evaluations, and then
determines the best job structure.
b. when an organization first performs job evaluations, then hires and develops its human resources, and then
determines the best job structure.
c. when an organization first determines the best job structure, performs job evaluations, then hires and
develops its human resources.
d. when an organization first performs job evaluations, then determines its best job structure, then hires
and develops its human resources.
26. Which of the following is not a main determinant of the labor supply

a. The size, age, sex, and educational composition of the population.
b. The supply of products and services.
c. The demand for goods and services in the economy.
d. The nature of production technology.
e. The labor force participation rates.
27. Which of the following corporate strategies would most likely not have staff reductions as part of its
human resource strategy?

a. low-cost leader
b. merger
c. divestiture
d. growth
e. All would require staff reductions.
28. An overall growth corporate strategy will lead to which of the following activities by the human resource

a. aggressive recruiting
b. hiring
c. training
d. two of the above
e. all of the above




29. Which of the following most closely represents the proper order for human resource planning?

a. Determine growth objectives, determine human resource objectives, examine job design and structure, and
estimate human resource shortages or surpluses.
b. Determine human resource objectives, examine job design and structures, determine growth objectives, and
estimate human resource needs.
c. Determine growth objectives, estimate human resource shortages and surpluses, determine human resource
objectives, and examine job design and structures.
d. Determine human resource objectives, determine growth objectives, examine job design and structure, and
estimate human resource needs
e. Determine human resource objectives, determine human resource shortages and surpluses, examine job design
and structure, and determine growth objectives.
30. The process of responding to a person differently based on that person’s individual difference can be
defined as

a. wage negonations.
b. supplemental benefits.
c. collective bargining.
d. external pay equity.
e. discrimination.
31. Title Vll of the Civil Rights Act covers the following except

a. sexual harassment.
b. age discrimination.
c. sexual discrimination.
d. racial harassment.
e. national origin harassment.
32. The three ways discrimination in employment decisions are manifested are

a. disparate treatment, adverse impact, and past discrimination.
b. disparate treatment, unequal treatment, and adverse impact.
c. adverse impact, unequal treatment; and past discrimination.
d. adverse impact, the four-fifths rule, and past discrimination.
33. Which of the following is NOT an example of disparate treatment?

a. having whites take one test and giving blacks a different, more selective test
b. applying one set of criteria to males and another to females
c. applying a test to all applicants but rejecting more blacks
d. refusing to hire foreign-looking persons because they might be illegal aliens
e. none of the above
34. The Four-Fifths rule is used to determine

a. disparate treatment.
b. unequal treatment.
c. past discrimination.
d. adverse impact.
e. sexual harassment.
35. Which is an example of quid pro quo sexual harassment?

a. “female jokes” told by male employees around females
b. putting up pictures of nude females in the locker room
c. written obscenities about females at work
d. demanding sex as a condition for promotion
36. Which is an example of environmental sexual harassment?

a. demanding sex as a condition for promotion
b. “female jokes” told by male employees around females
c. asking for sexual favors in exchange for a position in the firm
d. asking for a date prior to hiring a person
37. If employees are too uninvolved in the job-analysis process,

a. inflation of duties may occur.
b. anxiety will be decreased.
c. valuable information will be missed.
d. the process will become too expensive.
e. the process will most likely never be completed.

38. The use of multiple methods to collect job analysis data provides a means of

a. cross-checking the accuracy of the data collected.
b. diary logs.
c. job evaluation.
d. performance appraisal.
e. human resource planning.
39. Which of the following represents a strategic choice an organization can make with respect to job

a. formality
b. degree of tie with corporate strategy
c. past oriented versus future oriented
d. make versus buy
e. interviews versus observation
40. When several elements are combined to produce a predetermined output, the employee has completed a

a. duty.
b. job.
c. position.
d. occupation.
e. task.
41. Which is the proper hierarchy?

a. task, position, occupation, job, job family
b. position, task, occupation, job, job family
c. task, position, job, occupation, job family
d. task, job, position, occupation, job family
e. task, position, job family, job, occupation
42. Which step precedes identifying jobs to be analyzed in a job analysis?

a. determine the level of employee involvement
b. determine the data collection method
c. determine the purpose of the job analysis
d. process the job analysis information
e. review and update the job analysis


43. Which of the following would be an instance where a job analysis would be in order?

a. upon restructuring
b. when turnover is high
c. when one has never been conducted
d. two of the above
e. all of the above
44. Which of the following is NOT a strategic choice organizations can make about their recruiting and
selection activities?

a. whether or not diversity in the workforce will increase
b. whether to use internal or external methods
c. to what degree the firm will use technologically advanced methods
d. whether or not to use untapped labor sources
e. whether to make or buy employees
45. Recruiting costs include all of the following except:

a. advertising and promotional materials
b. relocation expenses
c. production costs
d. background checks
46. Making employees refers to hiring ________ labor and buying employees refers to hiring ________ labor.

a. skilled; unskilled
b. skilled; skilled
c. unskilled; unskilled
d. unskilled; skilled
47. Organizations that recruit only skilled labor will have ________ salary expense and ________training

a. higher; higher
b. higher; lower
c. lower; higher
d. lower; lower


48. Which of the following is NOT a factor in budget allocation decisions as they pertain to recruiting and
selection activities?

a. cost per hire
b. costs of employee replacement
c. whether to hire women and minorities
d. geographical factors
e. level of turnover and growth
49. Why are Japanese firms willing to pay recruitment costs of 10 times the cost in the U.S.?

a. They feel they get more candidates to choose from.
b. They have a difficult time recruiting qualified candidates.
c. The employee will likely stay with the firm until retirement.
d. The firm expects to make up the cost in lower salary expense.
50. A way to interest employees in a job is to

a. offer flex time (such as job sharing).
b. job sharing.
c. child and elder-care.
d. telecommuting
e. all of the above.
51. What has been one of the primary reasons firms have redesigned jobs through automation?

a. to increase per unit costs
b. to increase boredom in the workplace
c. to lower motivation
d. to lower labor costs
e. to increase the number of employees
52. Continually performing repetitive, routine tasks, although efficient, can lead to

a. boredom.
b. fatigue.
c. tardiness.
d. absenteeism.
e. all of the above


53. Cross-functional integration is the act of

a. combining jobs into one.
b. implementing job enrichment.
c. implementing new technology.
d. increasing automation.
e. training employees across functions.
54. Which type of industry has been most active in implementing the strategy of cross-functional integration?

a. industrial
b. service
c. technical
d. military
e. overseas industries
55. Fredrick Taylor’s scientific management principles and general management philosophy emphasize the
following component

a. specialization.
b. clear and specific job descriptions.
c. systematic scheduling of work and rest breaks.
d. close supervision.
e. all of the above.
56. Which of the following is an advantage the organization gains by using job rotation?

a. It is always advantageous to make employees “jacks of all trades.”
b. They gain flexibility and the ability to substitute employees.
c. They improve the quality of the product through interaction.
d. They can reduce their supervisory costs.
e. There are no advantages to job rotation.
57. Job enlargement expands the job

a. horizontally.
b. vertically.
c. hierarchically.
d. Diagonally.


The Following Questions have Answers that are either True or False – Answer each questions and if the answer is
False explain why for full credit.
57. Strategic human resource management’s primary focus is on labor market conditions.
58. A firm’s strategy should have a long-range focus but should be adaptable and flexible to change to
environmental conditions.
59. Strategic human resource management is primarily concerned with hourly or operational employees.
60. The strategic human resource management approach views all managers as operative employees.
61. Three primary factors that influence strategy formulation are competitor actions, environmental
opportunities and threats, and an organization’s internal strengths and weaknesses.
62. When an organization adopts a political strategy that emphasizes cost cutting, the decision has a profound
impact on human resource strategies in all phases of human resource activity.
63. Overall corporate strategy should drive functional, including human resource, strategies.
64. It is uncommon for Human resource managers and Line managers to experience conflict.
65. Cultural values do not have much impact on human resource decisions.
66. The problem of filling entry-level positions is made worse because jobs are demanding more industrial
67. Improved communication and transportation systems have helped increase the number of firms doing business
68. The counterpart of the societal environment is the task environment.
69. Competition is a facet of the societal environment.
70. Human resource planning is the process of making decisions regarding acquisitions.
71. Divestitures and mergers often require reassignment or reconfiguration of the workforce.
72. A transition matrix is a qualitative form of human resource forecasting.
73. The Delphi technique of human resource forecasting relies on the knowledge of experts.
74. When a firm applies one set of rules to the majority of workers and another set of rules to minority
workers, it is guilty of adverse impact.
75. Seniority systems are permitted and are considered nondiscriminatory as long as they were not developed
out of an intent to discriminate.
76. The Age Discrimination Act covers only workers age 50 and up.
77. The Americans with Disabilities Act is limited to federal contractors.
78. One specific job analysis method that uses observation is the critical incident method.
79. The job-element method of job analysis produces worker-specific information.
80. The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) is primarily used with managerial jobs.
81. A job description describes the qualifications of the person required to perform the job.
82. Handicapped workers have been pursued seriously as potential hires by many organizations.
83. Telerecruiting refers to applicants sending videotapes to companies for which they wish to work.
84. Clearly written and specifically defined advertisements will dissuade unqualified applicants from applying
for a job.
85. Negligent hiring occurs when an employer fails to adequately verify an employee’s background and is held
liable when that employee injures a third party.

86. Telecommuting is an outgrowth of the computer revolution.
87. Flextime gives employees some discretion over when they start and stop their work day.
88. Building flexibility into an organization is an easy and inexpensive task.
89. A quality circle is designed to find ways to improve the quality of the product through improving the
production process and improving the salary and benefits of employees.
Short Essay Questions

90. What are the six primary tasks of Human Resource Management as discussed in the text?





91. Define synergy and economies of scope.



92. Describe four ways that an organization can reduce staff—line conflict and enhance credibility of staff

93. Describe the eight sectors of the external environment that can affect a firm.

94. Describe four strategic choices a firm can make concerning human resource planning and how those choices
will affect the human resource plan.




95. What are the two key issues associated with ensuring that a Human Resource Information System works for an

96. Describe the three ways a firm can be found guilty of discrimination.


97. Describe the six major steps in conducting a job analysis.
98. What is the dictionary of occupational titles? Who publishes it?
99. Define and describe halo effects and contrast effects and how they influence interviews.



100. Discuss and differentiate between the four types of interviews described in the text.


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