Global Warming

Global Warming

Essay #2: Arguing to Convince & Persuade
NOTE: Essay # 2 should combine the strategies you have learned in both Chapters 9 & 10 (convincing and persuading).

Arguing to Convince

? This essay is based on Chapters 9 & 10 of the textbook.
? Make a case—write an argumentative essay that seeks to convince your audience of the validity of your position, and that persuades them to accept your claim. Your goal is to win the assent of readers—to influence readers. Limit the focus of your essay to a topic that can be fully developed in a six page essay—see “Topic and Focus” (P. 224)
? Additionally, you must also make a special effort to appeal to your audience through character, reason, and emotion (ethos, logos, pathos)
? Identify the specific audience you address in your essay (senior citizens, students, American voters, artists, etc). In the header of your essay—below the date—identify your audience. Make sure to read the audience analysis information (Pp. 210-211, 225).
? Use the SAME subject (from Parts III and IV of the text, Pp. 307-590) as you used in Essay # 1.
? You must incorporate material from THREE of the readings associated with your chosen subject (from Parts III or IV) into your essay—paraphrases, direct quotes, and references.
? In addition, you must use material from at least TWO library sources (books or articles from the library databases—see end of document). If you fail to use material from three text book readings and two library sources as source material for your essay, you will earn a failing grade for the essay. Likewise, your grade will suffer if you use the source material in a superficial way, for example if you simply use one direct quote from each of the readings.
? Carefully review Chapters 6 and 7.
? The essay must be at least five (5) FULL pages in length (a Works Cited page is required, but it does NOT count in the page length requirement for this assignment).
? Use the Student Sample Essay on Pp. 238-240 as a model, and refer to all of the blue boxes: “Concept Close-Up” and “Best Practices” throughout Chapter 9 as you write.
Essay Organization:
Part 1: General introduction of the issue; definition of key terms and concepts (Pp. 209, 231-232)
Part 2: History of the issue—explain the controversy, the debate, why the issue is even “an issue;” conclude this section with the claim
Part 3: Reasons and evidence (Pp. 209, 233-235)—this should be the longest, most detailed section of the essay
Part 4: Conclusion
Accessing Library Sources

1. Go to CourgarWeb/Library/Find Articles & Books Online (right side)
2. Search by Subject
3. Select the appropriate subject
4. Select a database to search
5. Enter search terms
Netlibrary (online books):
1. Go to CourgarWeb/Library/Find Articles & Books Online (right side)
2. Select Electronic Books
3. Enter search terms
***Helpful websites:
***Include as much support (facts, testimony, statistics, etc.) as possible in your essay, but make sure to explain all of the data that you use—do not just stick a statistic or a quotation in the middle of a paragraph. Introduce the data you use, and thoroughly explain HOW and WHY it is relevant to your argument.
The Rhetorical Appeals: Ethos, Logos, Pathos
I. Ethos: An appeal grounded in the credibility of the writer.
Credible writers are trustworthy and believable; thus, they are better equipped to persuade an audience. An appeal based on ethos is grounded in the character and / or position of the writer. You can develop credibility in your essays by:
? Being fair-minded and respectful of the opinions of others
? Demonstrating your knowledge of the subject
? Connecting to values you share with the audience
Strategies for developing an appeal to ethos (credibility) in an argument:
I. Be knowledgeable about the topic
“Do your homework:” read extensively about your topic; understand ALL perspectives
Build a sound case: use plenty of accurate, appropriate data to support your claim
II. Demonstrate fairness
Express an understanding of the opposing view
Convey empathy for particular elements of the opposing view
III. Build a bridge to the audience
Ground arguments in shared values and assumptions
II. Logos: An appeal grounded in reason and logic.
The rational appeal (logos) is grounded in logical, ordered reasoning and substantial, appropriate evidence—it satisfies the human desire for logic, reason, and order. Writers must acknowledge that people act rationally most of the time, and will usually respond favorably to persuasive arguments based on reason. Evidence is critical in making this appeal, and the effective use of appropriate evidence is a powerful strategy for persuasion.
Strategies for developing an appeal to logos (reason) in an argument:
I. Arrange the material in your essay in a logical order
II. Support claims with evidence and examples that make sense—clearly explain HOW and WHY evidence supports your claim
III. Gather evidence from credible sources
III. Pathos: An appeal grounded in emotion.
In a credible, academic argument, the emotional appeal (pathos) is based on shared values with the audience. An appeal to emotion will also use language effectively to create pictures, smells, etc. in order to illustrate an aspect of the argument for the audience. Because humans respond to data emotionally as well as intellectually, persuasion is sometimes most effective if an appeal to emotion is coupled with an appeal to logic in an argument.
Strategies for developing an appeal to pathos (emotion) in an argument:
I. Appropriate language choice
Concrete language and specific details
Vivid examples and illustrations
Suitable metaphors and analogies
II. Sensitivity to audience values
Acknowledge ads be respectful of audience values
Avoid biased/slanted language that distorts the truth
Only an ethical, legitimate use of the emotional appeal is acceptable in academic writing. Avoid the manipulative use of emotion that is often associated with politicians, demagogues, and religious fanatics, as this is unacceptable in classic argumentation.
In order to avoid inappropriate use of the emotional appeal in academic writing, use it with caution. Test your emotional appeals for authenticity by checking them against the following questions:
Do the emotional appeals substitute for knowledge and reason?
Do they employ stereotypes and pit one group against another?
Do they offer a simple, unthinking reaction to a complex situation
3 FROM THE BOOK 1. The Aims of Argument: A Text and Reader, 7th edition McGraw-Hill (2011) by Timothy Crusius and Carolyn E. Channell ISBN: 9780077343798
? In addition, you must use material from at least TWO ONLINE DATABASES (books or articles from the library databases)


Connecting to Library Databases in CougarWeb:

Using Academic Search Complete for Magazine and Journal Articles:

Searching SAGE Knowledge When Your Professor Says No Wikipedia:

Using Opposing Viewpoints in Context for Current issues Topics:

How to Search CQ Researcher for Current Issues Assignments:

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